An argument is a reasoning that is used to prove or prove that what is said or affirmed is true, or to convince the other of something we assert or deny. The word, as such, comes from the Latin argumentum.
In this sense, the argument always seeks to persuade the other person about the truthfulness of what we say. For this reason, to be convincing, we must ensure that our argument is consistent, sound and without contradictions that may affect its credibility. Hence, it is said that a good argument must always be shielded, that is, without weak points, to face aftershocks and rebuttals.
On the other hand, as an argument, in the field of literature, theater and cinematography, the set of situations, facts, actions or episodes that take place in the course of a narrative, whether literary, dramatic or filmic, is also designated. In this sense, by extension, the summary of a literary work or a movie can also be called as an argument.
As an argument of authority is called the one that supports their reasons in the prestige or credit of another person, considered an authority in the matter. In this sense, the argument uses its words and is used without resorting to other facts or reasons that support it.
According to Logic, the argument is called the set of premises to which a conclusion follows. In this sense, the conclusion would become the logical consequence of the premises, and only when presented in this way will it be solid and valid and, in effect, convincing, persuasive.
A deductive argument is one that has a logical structure where, following true premises, a certain conclusion is also obtained. As such, the deductive argument goes from a general reasoning towards a particular one. An example of deductive argument would be the following: “All men are mortal. Juan is a man. Therefore, Juan is mortal. ”
The inductive argument is one where not necessarily true premises lead to a valid conclusion. Unlike deductive reasoning, there is no agreement as to when to consider an argument as valid, since the inductive argument does not generalize the conclusion obtained from its premises. In this sense, the inductive argument, unlike the deductive, goes from the particular to the general. An example of wrong inductive reasoning would be the following: “Raquel’s car is blue, Luis’s car is blue; therefore, all cars are blue. ”